Alcohol can be metabolised by both oxidative and non-oxidative pathways. Oxidative pathway involves the three enzymes (ADH, cytochrome P450 and catalase enzyme) mentioned in the previous post and the diagram as well. The products of this pathway are Acetaldehyde and Acetate both of which are toxic to cells and tissues. Acetaldedhye is further metabolised to acetate and NADH by ALDH2 as it is shown in the diagram (refer to previous post). Acetate is then oxidised to carbon dioxide (CO2) in the liver, heart, brain an skeletal muscle.
The by-products of this pathway are fatty acid esters (FAEEs) by FAEE synthease and phosphatidyl ethanol by phospholipase D.
The metabolism pathways provided here are just a quick outline of how alcohol is metabolised. I will post more on how these by-products harm human tissues.
- Zakhari, S., (2006). Alcohol Metabolism Part: Mechanisms of Action. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. 29 (4). Available from http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/arh294/245-255.htm [Accessed 04/03/2016]
- Intoximeters, (2016). Alcohol and the Human Body. Intoximeters. Available from https://www.intox.com/t-physiology.aspx [Accessed 15/03/2016]
- National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism., (2007). Alcohol Metabolism: An Update. Alcohol Research & Health. 30 (1). Available from http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/AA72/AA72.htm [Accessed 12/03/2016]